Nepal – the country of the Buddha and the Mt. Everest

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Archive for the ‘Dcuments’ Category


Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on April 20, 2015

[ This is a ‘secret draft proposal’ forwarded by the Government of India to then His Majesty’s Government of Nepal  for security, water resource management and  industry and commerce also. The slain King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev is reported to have rejected this proposal. For that matter, Nepalese people should heartily thank the slain king. The proposal, though soft in language, is extremely cruel and dangerous in substance and meaning. Had the King  told his men to sign on the proposal, Nepal’s  military would have been paralyzed, sovereignty and independence would have been compromised, ownership of water resource would have been lost and big Indian business houses would have swallowed up Nepalese business entrepreneurs etc. There are these days loud talks in Kathmandu or elsewhere that Nepal in Bhutan’s shoes is morphing into a present day Sikkim. This, therefore, is posted for discussion.]

birendraAgreement between the Government of India and His Majesty’s Government of Nepal on Mutual Cooperation,

The Government of India and His Majesty’s Government of Nepal (hereinafter also referred to as the Contracting Parties),

Recalling the unique, age-old and traditional friendship between the peoples the peoples of India and Nepal based on the bonds of history, geography and of shared social and cultural values,

Reaffirming their adherence to the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the Governments of India and Nepal of 1950, which has ever since been and remains the cornerstone of Indo-Nepal relations,

Keen to sustain and further strengthen the bonds of friendship, good neighbourliness and mutually beneficial cooperation between the two countries and peoples,

Determined to strengthen economic cooperation between them.

Desiring to develop their economics in their own and common interest.

Convinced of the benefits of mutual sharing of scientific and technical knowledge and experience to promote trade between them, have agreed as follows:

Part- I

Treatment of Each Other’s Nationals in Their Respective Territories Read the rest of this entry »

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The Anglo-Nepal War 1814–1816

Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on December 28, 2011

As commander of the Gorkhali forces in Dheradun, Capt. Balbhadra Kunwar was handed the responsibility of defending the area. The expanding Nepali/Gorkhali State had since the mid-late 18th century expanded the nation’s border on all sides, which eventually led to conflict with the British East India Company and a war followed.

Realizing he could not defend the town of Dehradun, Capt. Balbhadra Kunwar withdrew to the strategic hill fort of Khalanga with an army strength of 600 including women and children against the British East India Company British stronghold of 3000-3500 troops. He turned down an incentive proposal of the British who would make him Governor of the WesternGarhwal should he surrender or leave Nepal.

In the month of October 1814, Major General Sir Rollo Gillespie of the British army had advanced along with 3,500 troops and eleven pieces of cannon to occupy the Nepali territories situated between the Ganga and Yamuna rivers in the Gharwal and Kumaon regions that had been occupied by the Nepali forces. Captain Balabhadra Kunwar had maintained his position at a 400 cubits high hill in a place called Nalapani, situated north-east of Dehradun, to check his advance. Read the rest of this entry »

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India-Nepal Extradition Treaty

Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on June 17, 2011

Kathmandu, 2 October 1953


The Government of India and the Government of Nepal, being desirous of regulating extradition of criminals as between the two countries, have resolved to enter into a new Treaty of Extradition with each other, and

have for this purpose, appointed as their plenipotentiaries the following persons, namely, THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA: His EXCELLENCY SHRI BHALCHANDRA KRISHNA GOKHALE, Ambassador of India in Nepal, THE GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL: THE HON’BLE SHRI MATRIKA PRASAD KOIRALA, Prime Minister of Nepal, Who having examined each other’s credentials and found them good and in due form have agreed as follows


Article I

The two Governments hereby engage on a basis of strict reciprocity to deliver up to each other those persons, who, being accused, or convicted, of a crime committed in the territory of one Government, shall be found within the territory of the other Government, under the circumstances and conditions stated in the present Treaty.


Article II

Neither Government shall be bound in any case to surrender any person who is not a national of the country by the Government of which the requisition has been made, except where such person is accused of having committed the offence specified in clause (10) of Article 3.

Article III

The offences for which extradition is to be granted in accordance with this Treaty are the following, namely

(1) Murder or attempt or conspiracy to murder.

(2) Culpable homicide not amounting to murder.

(3) Grievous hurt.

(4) Rape.

(5) Dacoity.

(6) Highway robbery.

(7) Robbery with violence.

(8) Burglary or house-breaking.

(9) Arson.

(10) Desertion from Armed Forces.

(11) Offences against the laws prohibiting the export and import of goods.

(12) Embezzlement by public officers.

(13) Serious theft, that is to say cases of theft where violence bar, been used or where the value of the property stolen exceeds Rs. 500 and cattle stealing.

(14) Abduction or kidnapping.

(15) Forgery and the use of what is known to be forged, counterfeiting or altering money; uttering or bringing into circulation counterfeited or altered money.

(16) Receiving of illegal gratification by a public servant.

(17) Escaping from custody while undergoing punishment after conviction for any of the offences specified in clauses (1) to (16). Read the rest of this entry »

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ANGLO-NEPAL War with East India Company

Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on April 15, 2011

By Mira

ANGLO-NEPAL WAR (Gorkha &; British East India Company war):-
By the end of the 18th century, the British East India Company was firmly established in India. The East India Company had occupied almost all the princely States of India. They were looking for an opportunity to enter Nepal. The British were welcomed to Nepal during the Malla rulers. But Prithvi Narayan Shah did not allow them to stay in Nepal and a troop of British soldiers under the command of General Kinloch was badly defeated by the army of Prithvi Narayan Shah at Sindhuli in 1765 A.D. So, the British were aware of the strength and courage of the Gorkha soldiers. During the regency period of Bahadur Shah, East India Company put forward a proposal that the British might be allowed to trade in the boarder areas between Nepal and Tibet. But Bahadur Shah rejected that proposal. In 1792 A.D., a commercial treaty was concluded between Nepal and British India, but that was not enforced. Later, when Rana Bahadur Shah was in Banaras, Damodar Pande concluded a commercial treaty in 1801 A.D. That treaty did not favour British interest. East India Company always tried to maintain friendly relations with Nepal.
The East India Company wanted to trade in Tibet. The only way to Tibet was through Nepal and Nepal would never allow the British to go to Tibet through her territory. Moreover, giving permission to the British to go to Tibet through Nepal meant loosing her own market, i.e., Tibet. In such a situation, the East India Company thought to threaten Nepal with war.
Another reason for British aggression to Nepal was that they wanted to reside in cool and healthy hill stations like Dehradun, Kumaon, Shimla and Darjeeling. These places were under Nepal at that time. But the immediate cause of the war was annexation of Shiva Raj and Butwal to Nepal in 1806 A.D. For some time there were meetings and talks to settle the disputes over Shiva Raj and Butwal. Ultimately, in 1814 A.D. the East India Company declared war against Nepal.  Read the rest of this entry »

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Nepal – India Peace And Friendship Treaty 31 July 1950

Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on January 28, 2011

The Government of India and the Government of Nepal recognizing the ancient ties which have happily eisted between the two countries for cenuries.

Desiring still furthere to strengthen and develop these ties and to perpetuate peace between two countries.

Have resolved therefore to enter into a treaty of peace and friendship with each other, and have for this purpose, appointed as their plenipotentiaries the following persons, namely, the Government of India, His Excellency Shri Chandreshwar Prasad Narain Singh, Ambassador of India in Nepal; The government of Nepal, Mohun Shamsher, Jang Bahadur Rana, Maharaja, Prim Minister and Supreme Commander-in-Chief of Nepal, who having examined each other’s credentials and found them good and in due form having agreed as follows:

Article I
There shall be everlasting peace and friendship between the Government of India and the Government of Nepal. The two Government agrees mutually to acknowledge and respect the complete sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of each other. Read the rest of this entry »

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Nepal – Britain Friendship Treaty 21 December 1923

Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on January 22, 2011

Treaty of Friendship between Great Britain and Nepal signed at Kathmandu, 21st December 1923, and Note bearing the same date respecting the importation of Arms and Ammunition into Nepal – 1923.
( Exchange of ratifications took place at Kathmandu on the 8th April 1925)

Whereas space and friendship have now existed between the British Government and the Government of Nepal since the signing of the Treaty of Segowlie on the 2nd day of December 1815; and whereas since that date the Government of Nepal has ever displayed its true friendship for the British Government and the British Government has as constantly shown its good-will towards the Government of Nepal; and whereas the government of both the countries are now desirous of still further strengthening and cementing the good relations and friendship which have subsisted between them for more than a century; the two High Contracting Parties having resolved to conclude a new treaty of Friendship have agreed upon the following Article:-

Article I:
There shall be perpetual peace and friendship between the Governments of Great Britain and Nepal, and the two Governments agree mutually acknowledge and respect each other’s independence both internal and external.

Article II:
All previous treaties, agreements and engagements, since and including the Treaty of Segowlie of 1815, which have been concluded between the two Government are hereby conformed, except so far as they may be altered by the present Treaty. Read the rest of this entry »

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BOUNDARY TREATY – 1st November 1860

Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on January 15, 2011

During the disturbances which followed the mutiny of the Native army of Bengal in 1857, the Maharajah of Nepal not only faithfully maintained the relations of peace and friendship established between the British Government and the State of Nepal by the Treaty of Sugaulee, but freely placed troops at the disposal of the British authorities for the preservation of order in the Frontier Districts, and subsequently sent a force to co-operate with the British Army in re-capture of Lucknow and the final defeat of the rebels.

On the conclusion of these operations, the Viceroy and Governor-General in recognition of the eminent services rendered to the British Government by the Stated of Nepal, decleard his intention to restore to the Maharajah the whole of the lowlands lying between the River Kali and the district of Goruckpore, which belonged to the State of Nepal in 1815, and were cede to the British Government in that year by the aforesaid Treaty. These lands have now been indentified by Commissioners appointed for the purpose by the British Government, in the presence of Commissioners duputed by the Nepal Darbar; masonry pillars have been erected to mark the future boundary of the two States, and the territory has been formally delivered over to the Nepalese Authorities. In order the more firmly delivered over to the Nepal in the perpetual possession of this territory, and to mark in a solemn way the occasion of its restoration, the following Treay has concluded between the two states: Read the rest of this entry »

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TREATY OF TITALIYA – 10 February 1817

Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on January 12, 2011

Treaty, Covenant or Agreement entered into by Captin Barre Latter, Agent on the part of His Excellency the Right Honorable the Eal of Moira, K.G., Governer-General & C., &C., & C., and by Nazir Chaina Tenjin and Mahca Teinbah and Lama Duchim Longdoo , Deputies on the part of Rajah of Sikkimputtee, being severlly authorized and duly appointed for the above purpose- 1871.

Article 1
The Honorable East India Company cedes, transfer, and make over in full sorverignty to the Sikkimputte Rajha, his heirs or successors, all the hilly or mountainous country situated to the eastward of the Mechi River and to the westward of the Teesta River, formerly possessed and occupied by the Rajah of Nepaul, but the cedes to the Honorable East India Company by the Treaty of peace signed at Segoulee. Read the rest of this entry »

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Supplementary Boundary Treaty(Draft) 8 December 1816

Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on January 11, 2011

Memorandum for the approval and acceptance of the Rajah of Nipal, presented on 8th December 1816.
Adverting to the amity and confidence subsisting with the Rajah of Nipal, the British Government proposes to suppress, as much is possible, the execution of certain Articles in the Treaty of Segowlee, which bear hard upon the Rajah as follows:-

  • With a view to gratify the Rajah in a point which he has much at heart, the British Government is willing to restore the Terai ceded to it by the Rajah in the Treaty, to wit, the whole Terai lands lying between the Rivers Coosah and Gunduck, such as appertained to the Rajah before the late disagreement; excepting the disputed lands in the Zilllahs of Trihoot and Sarun, and excepting such portions of territory as may occur on both sides for the purpose of settling a frontier, upon investigation by the respective Commissioners; and excepting such lands as may have been given in possession to any one by the British Government upon ascertainment of his rights subsequent to the cession of Terai to that Government. In case the Rajah is desirous of retaining the lands of such ascertained proprietors, they may be exchanged for others, and let it be clearly understood that, notwithstanding the considerable extent of the lands in Zillah of Tirhoot, which have for a long time been a subject of dispute, the settlement made in the year 1812 of Christ, corresponding with year 1869 of Bikramajeet, be taken and everything else relinquished, that is to say , that the settlement and the negotiations, such as occurred at that period, shall in the present case hold good and be established. Read the rest of this entry »

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Treaty Of Sugauli (Proposed) 2 December 1815

Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on January 10, 2011

Treaty of peace between the Honourable East India Company and Mhaha Raja Bikram Sah, Rajan of Nipal, settled between Lieutenant Colonel Bradshaw on the part of Honourable Company, in virtue of the full powers vested in him by His Excellency the Right Honourable Francis, Earl of Moira, Knight of the Most Noble Order of the Garte, one of His Majesty’s Most Honourable Pirvy Council, appointed by the Court of Directors of the said Honourable Company to direct and control all the affairs in the East Indies, and by Sree Gooro Gujraj Misser and Chunder Seekur Opedeea on the part of Maha Raja Girmaun Jode Bikram Sah Bahadur, Shumsher Jung, in virtue of the powers to that effect vested in them by the said Rajah of Nipal, – 2nd December 1815.

Whereas was has arisen between the Honourable East India Company and the Rajah of Nipal, and whereas the parties are mutually disposed to restore the relations of peace and amity which, previously to the occurrence of the late differences, had long subsisted between the two States, the following terms of peace have been agreed upon: Read the rest of this entry »

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Agreement Between Kajee Amar Singh Thapa and Major General Ochterlony 15 may 1815

Posted by Ram Kumar Shrestha on January 9, 2011

In consideration of the high rank and character of Kajee Amar Singh Thapa, and of the skill, bravery and fidelity with which he has defended the country committed to his charge, it is agreed.

1. That Kajee Amar Singh Thapa, with the troops now in Rajgarh, shall march out and retain their arms and accountrements, the colour of their respective crops, two guns and all private proper, which shall be duly respected and preserved, and every attention and delicacy observed in respect to the Zanana of the Kajee, and very person under his authority.

2. In consideration, also, of the gallant conduct of Kanee Ranjor Singh Thapa, it is agreed that he shall likewise march out of the fort of Jaithak with two hundred men, who are to retain their arms, colours and one gun, with the bharadar (chief Officers) and their followers, about three hundred more in number, unarmed, with his own and their private property which shall be respected, and the sanctity of the Zanana preserved.

3. Kajee Amar Singh Thapa and Kajee Ranjor Singh Thapa with their property and followrs, are at liberty to proced by the route of Thaneswar, Hardwar and Nijababad to join the troops eastward of the river Sarju or Kali, or by whichever rout they determine to proceed to that destination. Conveyance shall be provided for the transportation of their property to the confines of the Nepal territory.

4. Kajee Amar Singh Thapa and Kajee Ranjor Singh Thapa shall be at liberty to meet whenever they please. Read the rest of this entry »

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